Dimensions of globalisation in Post-Cold War era
Dr. Rana khalid
Head of researchers IFPMC – London
Firstly, we can define Post-cold war as the era of various changes and challenges started from the remarkable year (1991) until now (friedman:2013). each one the five factors of globalization in this era has contradictions forces, were integrated and coherent. In fact, these forces were in themselves factors driving globalization forward in some way.
The social dimension experienced during post-cold war, the peak of elevation and the peak of failure as well. The forces that believe that globalization “as the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa” (Giddens:2016).Now seems that this forces are engaged in a brutal struggle against the forces that see globalization as a threat to societies ( Chumakov:2013) . But if we look fully at these two forces, we might find that they have mapped the social globalization in the post-Cold War era one way or another.
Technological dimension in the post-cold war era has leading in the age of globalization major breakthroughs in information technology, communication, and transportation. From the other hand, the anti-globalisation defeated that technological revolution makes the world flat (friedman:2005) and threatened the national borders. However, in this era technological globalization has contributed to improving the living conditions and opportunities for prosperity of many world citizens, as has even been recognized by fierce critics of globalization, such as Joseph Stiglitz: “Globalization has given many people in the developing world access to knowledge well beyond the reach of even the wealthiest in any country a century ago” (Stiglitz :2003).
Economical dimension in the post-cold war similarly divided between contradictions. Steady growth in much of the developing world – enabled by the opening of markets to goods, services, investment, and technology – has lifted hundreds of millions of people out of poverty. The current debates over ‘inequality’ and ‘exclusion’ imply that while the wealthy can take full advantage of an ever-integrating global economy, the majority experience scant returns. (Chatham house:2015). Today, the manifestations of economic globalization are under threat not only because of the consequences of the Covid19-. In fact, the epidemic has in fact exposed the fragility of economic globalization, as well as the rise and ferocity of protectionism (O’Neil:2020).
environmental dimension on the post-cold war phase we can discover that there is the issue of the environmental costs of continued global integration and dispersal of production. Both climate change and economic globalization are ongoing processes with uneven influences in this era both include implicit winners and losers. Double exposure refers to cases where a particular region, sector, ecosystem, or social group is confronted by the impacts of both climate change and economic globalization. (O’Brien and Leichenko: 2002).
Political dimension of globalisation struggled between the forces of the rise of globalization, and the forces of fall or “anti-globalisation”. This has been clearly reflected fragility of the institutions of political globalization (Canals, Jordi:2010) . Additionally, the global financial crisis brought life to Keynes’ ideas not only in the economy but also into the world of politics. Many opinions agree that the financial crisis has led to the Brexit storm in Europe and the emergence of the “Trumpism movement” (Tabachnick:2016).
To sum up, it has to be remembered, that the previous, political, economic, social, environmental and technological dimensions of globalization in the era of post-cold war, were a very complex and uneven process which leads to contradictory results. It contains a continuing dialogue between the supporters and the challengers who both remark the reality in their own ways.
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- Chatham house (2015). Overcoming the Risks and Contradictions of Globalization, The London Conference ,Available At: https://www.chathamhouse.org/london-conference-2015/background-papers/overcoming-risks-and-contradictions-globalization[Accessed 9th May 2020]
- Chumakov Alexander N, (2013). Social Aspects of Globalization (From a Globalists Viewpoint),social studies website ,Available at: https://www.sociostudies.org/almanac/articles/social_aspects_of_globalization_-from_a_globalistics_viewpoint[Assocciatet 6 may 2020]
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- Giddens, Anthony (1991). The Consequences of Modernity, united Kingdom: policy press,p64.Available at: https://voidnetwork.gr/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/The-Consequences-of-Modernity-by-Anthony-Giddens.pdf [Accessed 7 May 2020]
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- O’Neil, Shannon K (2020), How to Pandemic-Proof Globalization: Redundancy Not Reshoring Is the Key to Supply Chain Security, foreign affairs magazine ,Available At: https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/2020-04-01/how-pandemic-proof-globalization [Accessed 9th May 2020]
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